Image Change References

Image Change:

Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI): Jensen, J. R., 1986. Introductory Digital Image Processing, Prentice-Hall, New Jersey, p. 379.

Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI): McFeeters, S.K., 1996. The use of normalized difference water index (NDWI) in the delineation of open water features, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 17(7):1425–1432.

Normalized Difference Built-up Index (NDBI): Zha, Y., J. Gao, and S. Ni, 2003. Use of normalized difference built-up index in automatically mapping urban areas from TM imagery, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 24(3):583–594.

Burn Index: Burn Index uses an opposite Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR), which is -NBR. The NBR reference is Key, C.H.; Z. Zhu; D. Ohlen; S. Howard; R. McKinley; and N. Benson, 2002. The normalized burn ratio and relationships to burn severity: ecology, remote sensing and implementation. In J.D. Greer, ed. Rapid Delivery of Remote Sensing Products. Proceedings of the Ninth Forest Service Remote Sensing Applications Conference, San Diego, CA 8-12 April, 2002. American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Bethesda, MD.

Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM): Kruse, F. A., A. B. Lefkoff, J. B. Boardman, K. B. Heidebrecht, A. T. Shapiro, P. J. Barloon, and A. F. H. Goetz, 1993, “The Spectral Image Processing System (SIPS) - Interactive Visualization and Analysis of Imaging spectrometer Data.” Remote Sensing of Environment, v. 44, p. 145 - 163.


Otsu's: Otsu, N., 1979. A threshold selection method from gray-level histograms. IEEE Trans. Systems Man Cybernet. 9, 62–66.

Tsai's: Tsai, W., Moment-preserving thresholding. Comput. Vision Graphics Image Process. Vol. 29, pp. 377–393, 1985.

Kapur's: Kapur, J., Sahoo, P., Wong, A., A new method for graylevel picture thresholding using the entropy of the histogram. Comput. Vision Graphics Image Process. Vol. 29 (3), 273–285.

Kittler's: Kittler, J., Illingworth, J., Minimum error thresholding, Pattern Recogn. Vol. 19, pp. 41–47, 1986.


PCA: Richards, J.A., 1999. Remote Sensing Digital Image Analysis: An Introduction, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany, p. 240.

MNF: Green, A. A., Berman, M., Switzer, P., and Craig, M. D., 1988, A transformation for ordering multispectral data in terms of image quality with implications for noise removal: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, v. 26, no. 1, p. 65-74.

Boardman, J. W., and Kruse, F. A., 1994, Automated spectral analysis: a geological example using AVIRIS data, north Grapevine Mountains, Nevada: in Proceedings, ERIM Tenth Thematic Conference on Geologic Remote Sensing, Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, pp. I-407 - I-418.

ICA: Hyvarinen, A., and E. Oja, Independent component analysis: algorithms and applications, Neural Networks, vol. 13, no. 4-5, pp. 411-430, 2000.

Hyvarinen, A., Fast and robust fixed-point algorithms for independent component analysis, IEEE Trans. Neural Networks, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 626-634, 1999.